Haití y el desastre natural

Los haitíanos se enorgullecen de ser la cuna de la libertad para todo el continente Americano. Y sí. En el XVIII, Haití era sin más la joya de la corona napoleónica. Luego, los esclavos se sublevaron, Napoleón no pudo someterlos, Haití declara su independencia, y Napoleón abandona el plan de invasión o dominio de norteamérica vía la Lousiana, y por tanto la regala a 3 centavos el "acre" a las 13 colonias para darle a Inglaterra un enemigo de nivel, que a la larga la sobrepase... Los haitíanos dicen que la revuelta esclava que triunfó le dió lo que ahora son 14 estados a la unión américana. Y sí. Luego, siendo un faro de libertad, la nueva república independiente apoya a Simón Bolívar en su empresa libertadora de América del Sur. Haití era lugar que abrazaba. De allí partía Bolívar para guerrear y allí regresaba cuando era derrotado. Haití proveía armas y recursos. Luego, cuando al fin Bolívar no volvió, pues empezaba a ganar batallas en Venezuela, en Colombia, etc. inexplicablemente no reconocío la independencia haitiana de la corona francesa.

Eso explica, un poco, la calamidad haitíana. La historia y sus actores no han ofrecido sino injusticias a ese pueblo, que en su momento fue punta de lanza de los movimientos de liberación, que abrió la puerta a la independencia de todo el continente. No es poca cosa. Ahora el plueblo haitíano es el más rezagado, el más pobre. No hay palabras ni nada que se pueda decir ante la magnitud de la catástrofe. Debe haberlas, muchas, ante el heroísmo pretendido de quiénes ahora aprovechan la situación para curarse en salud, para presumir supremacías, para transmitir una vez más hegemonías. Esa impresión da al seguir la cobertura mediática en CNN. Las historias que allí aparecen no son ya las del pueblo haitíano, sino las de los mismos reporteros de CNN. Ellos son los protagonistas, y el noticiero se ha vuelto un reality show para mostrar a detalle cómo reacciona el reportero fulanito o sutanito ante el escenario de catástrofe. Sobre ese imperialismo cultural, Ivan Illich, el sacerdote católico, dijo varias cosas aquí.

El desastre, pues, es más social que natural. Si bien no hay edificios que soporten al terremoto más potente, un terremoto dado, como este de 7.1, tira o no tira edificios, dependiendo de la calidad con la que se construyen. El asesino mayor en Haití no fueron los 7.1 grados, sino la pobreza, la poca calidad de las construcciones, el apenas existente sistema sanitario, el analfabetismo que no crea capital social, cultural, de solidaridad, entre los haítianos. El asesino mayor en Haití no fue el minuto y cacho de movimiento telúrico, sino la indiferencia e injusticia de siglos de historia. No es este un desastre "natural" tanto como lo es social.

Vayan algunos materiales.

  1. El embajador de Haití en EUA, en breve entrevista: http://goo.gl/HjUF

  2. Pieza sobre historia 1: http://goo.gl/YXML

  3. Pieza sobre historia 2: http://goo.gl/yP8k

  4. Pieza sobre historia 3: http://goo.gl/h5cs

  5. Sobre el desastre "natural":

    1. Link 1
    2. Link 2 [VíaEnvironmental and Urban Economics]
    3. Link 3 [VíaEnvironmental and Urban Economics]

  6. Sobre los efectos de la ayuda, ahora y siempre. http://goo.gl/0dbr

    "The first of those truths is that we don’t know how to use aid to reduce poverty. Over the past few decades, the world has spent trillions of dollars to generate growth in the developing world. The countries that have not received much aid, like China, have seen tremendous growth and tremendous poverty reductions. The countries that have received aid, like Haiti, have not." [David Brooks, NYT]

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